Illustration by Oliver Barrett of The Atlantic
Although I’m not a musician, I seem to find myself hanging with them an awful lot. For example, in college I roomed with Warren Moise and accompanied him and his band Wormwood on many a gig. When Warren decided to drop out and make a go at being a professional musician, he invited me to join Wormwood as soundman or light man or something or another, but I stuck to the unglamorous academic life of a sophomore living in Tenement 9 in the so-called Horseshoe of the University of South Carolina. Later Warren later returned to school, became a lawyer, but still writes songs, like this one recorded by the Band of Oz.
The next year I moved off campus with another musician, Stan Gibbons, who played bass for a rock cover band called Buddy Roe. After Buddy Roe broke up, Stan got into jazz, and it was he who turned me on to the Miles Davis album Bitches Brew, which I didn’t dig, and believe me, I got to hear it on numerous occasions, like non-stop for a couple of months. I still don’t dig it, but now that I’ve finished Ian Carr’s two-inch thick (658 pages) Miles Davis, The Definitive Biography, I have come to appreciate why Davis became such a restless innovator and to see his refusal to settle for the profitable status quo as a mark of heroic artistry.
Born to upper middle class parents, Miles Dewey Davis III grew up in East St. Louis where his father practiced dentistry. Although he grew up in a household awash in music, it was classical music that his African American family embraced. His sister played the piano and his mother the violin. As Carr puts it in the biography, “After Emancipation, it was the professional men and ministers of the church who were the heads of the new black society, and they were at pains to get rid of any customs that were too ‘negroid’ or which harked back to slavery. It often happened that leading black citizens became the most fanatical imitators of white society. ”
However, that great corrupter of youth in those days, the radio, turned Miles onto Louis Armstrong, Buddy Bolden, and Roy Eldridge, so he took up the trumpet, played in the school band, but also at social clubs. By the time he was sixteen and still in high school, he had joined a music union and came under the tutelage of Clark Terry. This was in the 40’s. Once he graduated, he talked his parents into letting him go the Juilliard instead of Fisk University. At the Juilliard, he lived what Carr calls “a Jekell and Hyde” existence, trafficking with classical music by day and jazz, particularly bebop, by night.
Bebop was the first jazz innovative movement Davis got into. Soon, he found himself attending Charlie Parker gigs, and in 1945 he joined Charlie Parker’s group. During this period, he shared the stage with such greats as Dizzy Gillespie and John Coltrane.
Trane and Dizzy
So began his career, a career that featured a series of departures that usually irked the mainstream jazz community.
Weary of bebop, Davis and cronies Gil Evans and Jerry Mulligan among others started experimenting with the idea of having their instruments imitate human voices, creating more melodic jazz than bebop. After this so-called “birth of the cool” phase, Davis, now hooked on heroin, played what is called “hard bop.” He signed with Prestige records and locked in a room by himself kicked his H habit cold turkey, . Next came modal jazz, and in 1959 Davis released Kind of Blue, which is the best selling jazz album of all time. In the 60s as rock replaced jazz as the cool pop music, Miles embraced the sound of the guitar, and “went electric,” much to the chagrin of jazz purists, and hence Bitches Brew.
After Wynton Marsalis publically criticized Miles for abandoning “real jazz,” Miles responded:
What’s [Marsalis] doin’ messin’ with the past? A player of his caliber should just wise up and realize it’s over . . . Some people, whatever is happening now, either they can’t handle it or they don’t want to know. They’ll be messed up on that bogus ‘nostalgia’ thing. Nostalgia shit! That’s a pitiful concept. Because it’s dead, it’s safe – that’s what that shit is about! Hell, no one wanted to hear us when we were playing jazz. Those days with Bird, Diz, Trane – some were good, some were miserable . . . People didn’t like that stuff then. Hell, why do you think we was playing clubs? No one wanted us on prime-time TV. The music wasn’t getting across, you dig! Jazz is dead!
Point taken: innovation is often frowned upon, misunderstood. Why, after all the success of Born in the USA, did Springsteen follow that up with Nebraska? Why did Dylan abandon acoustic folk for the electric guitar, and why does he constantly reconfigure his songs so that at a concert he might be halfway through “Blowin’ in the Wind” before you recognize it?
Maybe because for them it has gotten old, stale. You don’t have to like the new product; I much prefer Kind of Blue to Bitches Brew. However, unless you’re a great musician, you probably should keep your mouth shut and let the masters do their thing.
It’s your thang, do what you wanna do.
I can’t tell you, who to sock it to.
You can read about my travails with my roomies here, a situation that had me literally threatening to hang myself to university officials.
I suspect Miles used a different mode of expression at Juilliard.